Tuesday, 3 July 2018

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO INDIA

- *Dr. S. Vijay Kumar
           Economic development is a process whereby an economy’s real national income increases over a long period of time. There is direct relationship between environment and economic development. Economic development without environmental considerations can cause serious environmental damage in turn impairing the quality of life of present and future generations. In the process of economic development, the environmental problems have been ignored or less concentrated. Any country’s environmental problems are related to the level of its economic development, the availability of natural resources and the lifestyle of its population. In India, rapid growth of population, poverty, urbanization, industrialization and several related factors are responsible for the rapid degradation of the environment. Environmental problems have become serious in many parts of the country, and hence cannot be ignored. The main environmental problems in India relate to air and water pollution particularly in metropolitan cities and industrial zones, degradation of common property resources (Tanks, Ponds Lakes, Rivers, Forests etc.) which affect the poor adversely as they depends on them for their livelihood, threat to biodiversity and inadequate system of solid waste disposal and sanitation with consequent adverse impact on health, infant mortality and birth rate. Supreme Court in 1991 gave directions to the Government of India making ‘Environment Science’ a compulsory subject in colleges and schools curricula. There is a need for coordination between government agencies, NGOs and the public for the proper management of environment quality and to achieve sustainable development in the country. Now, the need of the hour is to concentrate on sustainable development. Sustainable development means, “Meeting the needs of present generation without compromising with the needs of future generations.” In 1983, the United Nations set up the World Commission on Environment and Development called 'the Brundtland Commission' to examine the problems related to this area. The Commission in its report entitled "Our Common Future" submitted in 1987, used and defined this concept of sustainable development for the first time. Sustainable development implies the fulfillment of several conditions: Rational management of human, natural, and economic resources that aims to satisfy the essential needs of humanity in the very long term. In order to be sustainable, development must combine three main elements: fairness, protection of the environment, and economic efficiency. A sustainable development project must be based on a better-developed mode of consultation between the community and the members it comprises. The success of such a policy also depends on consumers accepting certain constraints and citizens observing certain requirements with regard to transparency and participation. This Paper is an attempt to review the current state of the environment and identifying the policy issues for promoting sustainable development.

Objectives of the Study: 
·         Impact of Environmental Degradation on Society
·         Link Between Bio-Diversity and Climate Change
·         Policies of Sustainable Development
·         Important Policy Measures for Sustainable Development
·         Climate Change Impact Key Observations on India and Actions
·         Suggestions and Conclusion
Methodology: The Study is based on information and data accessed from different sources like relevant Websites. National and International Journals and Reports.
IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ON SOCIETY: Environmental degradation is the result of the dynamic interplay of socio-economic, institutional and technological activities. Environmental changes may be driven by many factors including economic growth, population growth, urbanization, intensification of agriculture, rising energy use and transportation. Poverty still remains a problem at the root of several environmental problems. It has been estimated that the process of deforestation, bad soil and water management, submergence of and in dam reservoirs, industrial and urban expansion, overgrazing, wind and water erosion, salination, flooding, water logging and so on, contribute to a loss of productivity in roughly one million hectare of land annually. The above process results in desertification and creation of drought prone conditions, leading to the immersion of those dependent on land for their daily subsistence. Given these processes and the resultant, decline in livelihood for the millions critically dependent on these resources, there are few options but to cultivate increasingly marginal lands, thereby compounding the sustainability crisis. The impact on women is even more severe, as the loss access to fuel, fodder and water forces them to walk miles to collect the essential necessities for their subsistence. The consequent escalation in the pressure on available arable land is so enormous that it has contributed to the growth of criminalization in the country side with illegal occupation of community lands, the formation of land armies by land lords to oppose any demands by marginal farmers for land, as well as increasingly militant movements to assert local control over productive resources like land and forests. The latter process most often results in state repression, compounding the climate of social unrest. Much of these have severally strained social relations within communities and between communities and the state. For instance, every year, over five lakh people are forcibly displaced by development projects alone. Most of them are not rehabilitated, and alternatives are rarely provided. In the process, communities and families are broken up, destroying structure of social and economic support. Loss of cultural diversity is an inevitable consequence. For instance, a report based on a comprehensive survey of people displaced by the Rihand Dam (Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar, UP) stated that, "Many of the oustees, particularly the tribals, have fallen into the typical cycle of debt bondage, coupled with increasing destitution and intermittent employment as contract labourers in coal mines and elsewhere ... most were simply kicked out with nothing left to fend for themselves."

LINK BETWEEN BIO - DIVERSITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE:
·        Climate change is affecting species already threatened by multiple threats across the globe. Habitat fragmentation due to colonization, logging, agriculture and mining etc. are all contributing to further destruction of terrestrial habitats.
·        Individual species may not be able to adapt. Species most threatened by climate change have small ranges, low population densities, restricted habitat requirements and patchy distribution.
·        Ecosystems will generally shift northward or upward in altitude, but in some cases they will run out of space – as 10C change in temperature correspond to a 100 Km change in latitude, hence, average shift in habitat conditions by the year 2100 was the order of 140 to 580 Km.
·        Coral reef (most diverse of all marine ecosystems) mortality may increase and erosion may be accelerated. Increase levels of carbon dioxide adversely impact the coral building process (calcification).
·        Sea level may rise, engulfing low-lying areas causing disappearance of many islands, and extinctions of endemic island species.
·        Invasive species may be aided by climate change. Exotic species can out-compete native wildlife for space, food, water and other resources, and may also prey on native wildlife.
·        Droughts and wildfires may increase. An increased risk of wildfires due to warming and drying out of vegetation is likely. Sustained climate change may change the competitive balance among species and might lead to forests destruction.

POLICIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
Policies for Sustainable Development: (1) Accelerating economic growth (2) Meeting basic needs (3) Raising living standards (4) Helping in ensuring clean environment free from all types of pollution (5) Maximizing the net effects of economic development (6) Preservation and enhancement of the stock of the environmental, human and physical capital (7) Inter generational equity and (8) Overall strict control on gross exploitation of the natural resources of each country. There are many initiatives in favour of sustainable development. However, these initiatives are often scattered, sometimes not well known (in particular, there is little exchange between the public and private sectors), and not well promoted. These initiatives, which are rarely part of a long-term plan, are conducted by a wide variety of players: private and public-sector companies, associations, NGOs, territorial authorities, educational institutions, healthcare facilities, public bodies, etc. All these initiatives sometimes constitute a local knowledge base that must be exploited, promoted, and shared. The various ministries must increasingly provide the driving force and co-ordinate, promote, and encourage all stakeholders involved in sustainable development initiatives. In view of the size of the task, sustainable development requires co-ordinated action by all of the economic actors and the public authorities.

IMPORTANT POLICY MEASURES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
·        Reducing Poverty: Reduction of poverty should be the foremost priority of the Government. It should select those projects which provide greater employment opportunities to the poor. It should expand health, family planning and education that will help reduce population growth. Supply of drinking water, sanitation facilities, and slum clearance should be given top priority.
·        Removing Subsidies: To reduce environmental degradation at no net financial cost to the Government, subsidies for resource use by the private and public sectors should be removed. Because, subsidies on the use of electricity, fertilizers, pesticides, diesel, petrol, gas, irrigation, water etc lead to their wasteful use and environmental problems.
·        Clarifying and Extending Property Rights: Lack of property rights over excessive use of resources leads to degradation of environment. This leads to overgrazing, deforestation and over exploitation of minerals. Therefore, clarifying and assigning ownership titles to private owners will solve environmental problems.
·        Market based Approaches: Various market based approaches should be adopted to protect environment. Market based instruments in the form of emission tax, pollution taxes, marketable permits, depositor fund system, input taxes, differential tax rates, user administrative charges, subsidies for pollution abatement equipment etc should be extensively used to protect environment.
·        Regulatory Policies: Regulatory policies are the other weapons for reducing environmental degradation. Regulators have to make decisions regarding price, quantity and technology. They decide the technical standards, regulations and charges on air, water and land pollutants.
·        Public Participation: Public awareness and participation are highly effective to improve environmental conditions. For this purpose various formal & informal education programme, environmental awareness programmes, advertisement, public movements, afforestation, conservation of wild life etc are to be organized on a large scale.
·        Trade and Environment: The Government should formulate an environment friendly trade policy covering both domestic and international trade. It should encourage the establishment of less polluting industries, adoption of cleaner technologies, adoption of environment friendly processes etc to control environmental degradation.
·        Participation in Global Environmental Efforts: Participation in various international conventions and agreements on environmental protection and conservation can also help to minimize damages of environmental degradation. They include the Montreal protocol, the Basel convention, the Rio Declaration, the Agenda 21, the Earth summits, etc.
·        Renewable energy: Policies should be framed for the use of renewable energy like solar and wind in place of coal and petrol. Atomic Energy Agency predicted that renewable energy would overtake natural gas to become the second largest source of power generation worldwide within two years, and that global wind and solar generating capacity would increase by more than 30 per cent.
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT KEY OBSERVATIONS ON INDIA AND ACTIONS: Climate change is defined as the change in weather patterns over a period of time wherein the time can be in number of years to decades and million years. In general, climate change is described with respect to a particular region. Sometimes, it can be referred by taking the entire Earth into account. In a country like India which is fast growing into a global economy, climate change is a major talking point and issue to be dealt with. The Climate Change Impact Key
Observations and Actions are:
·        Biodiversity and Climate Change: Biodiversity refers to the variety of life on earth, and its biological diversity. It actually boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play and that it is in this combination that enables the ecosystem to possess the ability to prevent and recover from a variety of disasters. For example - Orissa Super Cyclone, Latur earthquake, Bhopal chemical disaster, Andhra cyclone, Gujarat earthquake. It is now believed that human activity is changing biodiversity and causing massive extinctions. The World Resource Institute reports that there is a link between biodiversity and climate change. Rapid global warming can affect ecosystems chances to adapt naturally. Over the past 150 years, deforestation has contributed an estimated 30 percent of the atmospheric build-up of CO2. It is also a significant driving force behind the loss of genes, species, and critical ecosystem services. The 2010 Maple croft Climate Change Vulnerability Index ranks India as the world’s most vulnerable country apart from Bangladesh. With climatic zones ranging from the Himalayas to the humid sub-tropics of South India, with 5,700km of mainland coastline and 400 million people living in conditions of extreme poverty, India is fully exposed to the hazards of global warming. At present there is high levels of pollution at Delhi due to heavy vehicular traffic and industries.
Action: The Indian government commissioned a major study into the effects of climate change by its own scientists. The Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment (INCCA) published its report towards the end of 2010. Focusing on impacts predicted as early as the 2030s, the results make disturbing reading for government planners.

Extreme Heat: Models predict an average increase in temperature in India of 2.3 to 4.8oC for the benchmark doubling of Carbon-dioxide scenario. Temperature would rise more in Northern India than in Southern India. It is estimated that 7 million people would be displaced, 5700 km of land and 4200 km of road would be lost, and wheat yields could decrease significantly. There is strong evidence now that most of the observed warming over the last 50 years is caused by human activities. India is experiencing a warming climate. Unusual and unprecedented spells of hot weather are expected to occur far more frequently and cover much larger areas. Under 4°C warming, the west coast and southern India are projected to shift to new, high-temperature climatic regimes with significant impacts on agriculture. Average temperature across the country is predicted to rise by at least 1.7°C from a 1970s baseline. India’s most respected plant scientist, Professor M.S.Swaminathan, estimates that each one degree Celsius rise in temperature reduces the wheat growing season by a week. The volume of rainfall is predicted to increase, but with greater variability and risk of flooding or drought. This is the prospect of greatest concern to small farmers.          
·        Action: With built-up urban areas rapidly becoming “heat-islands”, urban planners will need  to adopt measures to counteract this effect.

·        Changing Rainfall Patterns: A decline in monsoon rainfall since the 1950s has already been observed. The frequency of heavy rainfall events has also increased. A 2°C rise in the world’s average temperatures will make India’s summer monsoon highly unpredictable. At 4°C warming, an extremely wet monsoon that currently has a chance of occurring only once in 100 years is projected to occur every 10 years by the end of the century. An abrupt change in the monsoon could precipitate a major crisis, triggering more frequent droughts. India’s northwest coast to the south eastern coastal region could see higher than average rainfall. Dry years are expected to be drier and wet years wetter. Greater flooding in large parts of India, for example – Recent heavy rainfall and floods at places in South Tamil Nadu and South Kerala due to Ockhi Cyclone.
·        Acton: Improvements in hydro-meteorological systems for weather forecasting and the installation of flood warning systems can help people move out of harm’s way before a weather-related disaster strikes. Building codes will need to be enforced to ensure that homes and infrastructure are not at risk.

·        Droughts: Evidence indicates that parts of South Asia have become drier since the 1970s with an increase in the number of droughts. Droughts have major consequences. In 1987 and 2002-2003, droughts affected more than half of India’s crop area and led to a huge fall in crop production. Droughts are expected to be more frequent in some areas, especially in north-western India, Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh. Crop yields are expected to fall significantly because of extreme heat by the 2040s.
·        Acton: Investments in R&D for the development of drought-resistant crops can help reduce some of the negative impacts.

·        Ground Water: More than 60% of India’s agriculture is rain-fed, making the country highly dependent on groundwater. Even without climate change, 15% of India’s groundwater resources are overexploited. Although it is difficult to predict future ground water levels, falling water tables  can be expected to reduce further on account of increasing demand for water from a growing population, more affluent life styles, as well as from the services sector and industry.

·        Acton: The efficient use of ground water resources will need to be incentivized.

·        Glacier Melt: Much attention focuses on the observed retreat of Himalayan glaciers, the source region for India’s three major rivers. The INCCA report anticipates an increase in water run-off in the Himalayan region of 5%-20%. Beyond the 2030s, the 500 million people living in the catchments of the Ganges and Indus rivers may experience diminishing water availability in summer. Glaciers in the northwestern Himalayas and in the Karakoram range - where westerly winter winds are the major source of moisture - have remained stable or even advanced. On the other hand, most Himalayan glaciers - where a substantial part of the moisture is supplied by the summer monsoon - have been retreating over the past century. At 2.5°C warming, melting glaciers and the loss of snow cover over the Himalayas are expected to threaten the stability and reliability of northern India’s primarily glacier-fed rivers, particularly the Indus and the Brahmaputra.  The Ganges will be less dependent on melt water due to high annual rainfall downstream during the monsoon season. The Indus and Brahmaputra are expected to see increased flows in spring when the snows melt, with flows reducing subsequently in late spring and summer.  Alterations in the flows of the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers could significantly impact irrigation, affecting the amount of food that can be produced in their basins as well as the livelihoods of millions of people (209 million in the Indus basin, 478 million in the Ganges basin, and 62 million in the Brahmaputra basin in the year 2005).
·        Action: Major investments in water storage capacity would be needed to benefit from increased river flows in spring and compensate for lower flows later on.

·        Sea level rise: Sea level has been raising at 1.33mm per annum, a rate likely to increase and exceed predictions of UN scientists. Studies suggest that a one metre rise in sea level would displace over 7 million people, threaten freshwater supplies and the concentration of industry and infrastructure. Three of the world’s major cities – Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai – must contemplate this risk. The World Bank says that 500 million people live in States prone to devastating cyclones which are predicted to reduce in frequency but increase in intensity.  Mumbai has the world’s largest population exposed to coastal flooding, with large parts of the city built on reclaimed land, below the high-tide mark.  Rapid and unplanned urbanization further increases the risks of sea water intrusion. With India close to the equator, the sub-continent would see much higher rises in sea levels than higher latitudes. Sea-level rise and storm surges would lead to saltwater intrusion in the coastal areas, impacting agriculture, degrading groundwater quality, contaminating drinking water, and possibly causing a rise in diarrhea cases and cholera outbreaks, as the cholera bacterium survives longer in saline water. Kolkata and Mumbai, both densely populated cities, are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of sea-level rise, tropical cyclones, and riverine flooding. Recurring floods in various parts of the country and 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
·        Action: Building codes will need to be strictly enforced and urban planning will need to prepare for climate-related disasters. Coastal embankments will need to be built where necessary and Coastal Regulation Zone codes enforced strictly.

·        Agriculture and food security: Water resources will be affected as precipitation and evaporation patterns change around the world. This will affect agricultural output. Food security is likely to be threatened and some regions are likely to experience food shortages and hunger. While overall rice yields have increased, rising temperatures with lower rainfall at the end of the growing season have caused a significant loss in India’s rice production. Without climate change, average rice yields could have been almost 6% higher (75 million tons in absolute terms). Studies shows that wheat yields peaked in India and Bangladesh around 2001 and have not increased since despite increasing fertilizer applications. Observations show that extremely high temperatures in northern India - above 34°C - have had a substantial negative effect on wheat yields, and rising temperatures can only aggravate the situation. Seasonal water scarcity, rising temperatures, and intrusion of sea water would threaten crop yields, jeopardizing the country’s food security. Should current trends persist, substantial yield reductions in both rice and wheat can be expected in the near and medium term. Under 2°C warming by the 2050s, the country may need to import more than twice the amount of food-grain than would be required without climate change.
·        Action: Crop diversification, more efficient water use, and improved soil management practices, together with the development of drought-resistant crops can help reduce some of the negative impacts.

·        Energy Security: Climate-related impacts on water resources can undermine the two dominant forms of power generation in India - hydropower and thermal power generation - both of which depend on adequate water supplies to function effectively. To function at full efficiency, thermal power plants need a constant supply of fresh cool water to maintain their cooling systems. The increasing variability and long-term decreases in river flows can pose a major challenge to hydropower plants and increase the risk of physical damage from landslides, flash floods, glacial lake outbursts, and other climate-related natural disasters. Decreases in the availability of water and increases in temperature will pose major risk factors to thermal power generation.
·        Action: Projects will need to be planed taking into account climatic risks.

·        Water Security: Many parts of India are already experiencing water stress. Even without climate change, satisfying future demand for water will be a major challenge. Urbanization, population growth, economic development, and increasing demand for water from agriculture and industry are likely to aggravate the situation further. An increase in variability of monsoon rainfall is expected to increase water shortages in some areas. Studies have found that the threat to water security is very high over central India, along the mountain ranges of the Western Ghats, and in India’s northeastern states.
·        Action: Improvements in irrigation systems, water harvesting techniques, and more-efficient agricultural water management can offset some of these risks.

·        Health: Climate change is expected to have major health impacts in India- increasing malnutrition and related health disorders such as child stunting - with the poor likely to be affected most severely. Child stunting is projected to increase by 35% by 2050 compared to a scenario without climate change. Malaria and other vector-borne diseases, along with and diarrheal infections which are a major cause of child mortality, are likely to spread into areas where colder temperatures had previously limited transmission. Heat waves are likely to result in a very substantial rise in mortality and death, and injuries from extreme weather events are likely to increase.
·        Action: Health systems will need to be strengthened in identified hotspots. Improvements in hydro-meteorological systems for weather forecasting and the installation of flood warning systems can help people move out of harm’s way before a weather-related disaster strikes. Building codes will need to be enforced to ensure that homes and infrastructure are not at risk.

·        Migration and conflict: South Asia is a hotspot for the migration of people from disaster-affected or degraded areas to other national and international regions. The Indus and the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins are major trans boundary rivers, and increasing demand for water is already leading to tensions among countries over water sharing. Climate change impacts on agriculture and livelihoods can increase the number of climate refugees.
·        Action: Regional cooperation on water issues will be needed.
·        Eco - friendly – means earth-friendly or not harmful to the environment . This term most commonly refers to products that contribute to green living or practices that help conserve resources like water and energy. Eco-friendly products also prevent contributions to air, water and land pollution.
Action: In order to be eco – friendly, we have to protect our biodiversity.

SUGGESTIONS:
·        Strict Implementation of Environment and Pollution Laws: There is  no dearth of laws relating to environment and pollution in our country, but their enforcement is very weak. Hence, they should be implemented very strictly. Promoting “Clean and Green Campaign” in our country is vital to reduce the effects of “Climate Change”. Ban polythene carry bags is very essential.
·        Developing Recycling methods of waste is essential to contain pollution.
·        Save Petrol and Diesel by “Strengthening Public Transport System” to save environment and foreign exchange.
·        Planting more and more trees on war foot basis is the need of the hour. Afforestation, reforestation and stopping deforestation to increase ground water level and rain fall for irrigation.
·        Developing Public Transport System to reduce CO2 levels in the atmosphere.
  • Develop Non – Conventional Methods of Power Generation like Wind Energy. Geothermal Energy (Generating clean, renewable energy from hot water sources deep beneath the earth's surface, thus converting earth's heat into electricity), Hydel Energy, Fuel cells (fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or oxidizing agent) and Solar Energy.
·        Introduce a Carbon Tax - We need major legislation such as putting a price on carbon. Capturing carbon and reducing greenhouse gas emissions and planting trees could help slow and eventually reverse global warming trends.  
·        Exponentially Increase the Deployment of Renewable Energy - Aggressively expanding and strengthening the large-scale deployment of both centralized and distributed renewable energy including solar, wind, hydro, biomass, and geothermal to ease the strain on the present transmission and distribution system.
·        Develop National Renewable Energy (RE) Policy - Enact and deploy a comprehensive new energy road map with innovative renewable energy policies. In addition, set national renewable energy standards, such as 20 percent by 2020, 40 percent by 2030 and 100 percent by 2050 to create demand, new industries and innovation, and a new wave of green jobs.
·        Electrifying Transportation - Expedite a move to electrify transportation by encouraging expanded use of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrids (plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle that uses rechargeable batteries, or another energy storage device, that can be recharged by plugging it in to an external source of electric power) and deployment of solar-powered EV charging stations around the country.
·        Promote Nuclear Energy - For clean and cheap power we have to produce electricity through nuclear plants like France where its 75% of electricity is from nuclear energy.
·        Energy Efficiency - Promote energy efficiency in the economy, notably in industry, transportation, buildings and appliances. Make energy efficiency a high priority by expediting the development and implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency standards. To reduce the long-term demand for energy, engage states, industrial companies, utilities and other stakeholders to accelerate energy efficiency investments such as large-scale nationwide use of LED lamps, etc.
·        Utility-Scale Projects - Plan for the long term; phase out conventional energy subsidies, and develop a long-term plan to replace fossil with utility-scale renewable generation.
·        Renewable Innovative Financing Solution - Provide innovative financing (e.g., tax-free solar bonds or green infrastructure bonds) to instill more confidence from potential investors and decrease the cost of financing for renewable energy projects. Create and fund a national smart infrastructure bank to accelerate local demand for renewable energy.
·        Decentralized Energy - Avoid future fossil fuel investments in India and, instead, emphasize nationwide deployment of community-scale solar projects and micro grids with storage. India’s present 40-GW solar target should be extended to include photovoltaic panels on the rooftop of every home in India, generating enough power to reduce the country’s massive dependence on fossil fuels.
  • Micro grids Aggressively invest in a smart, two-way grid (and micro grids). Invest in smart meters, as well as reliable networks that can accommodate the two-way flow of electricity.
  • Solar Roadways India should also take advantage of the vast network of roads across India and the sun that beats down on them and turn them into energy-creating solar super highways. The idea of solar panel roads is to replace traditional asphalt roads with glass-based "solar panels that you can drive on" in a bid to turn roads into sources of renewable energy.
  • Promote Solar Vehicles - solar vehicle is an electric vehicle powered completely or significantly by direct solar energy. Usually, photovoltaic (PV) cells contained in solar panels convert the Sun’s energy directly into electric energy.
  • Develop Energy Storage Energy storage should include thermal, grid battery storage (e.g., Tesla Power wall home battery backup), compressed air/gas, vehicles-to-grid/home, pumped hydro, fuel cells or hydrogen, flywheels, superconducting magnets and super capacitors. Develop “Hydrogen Economy” plans. Recent innovations in hydrogen generation, storage, transport and use could transform it into the ultimate source of clean energy. Now India can export sunshine around the world by converting solar energy into liquid hydrogen fuel.
  • Transform India Into a Global Solar Manufacturing Hub - Establish R&D facilities within academia, research institutions, industry, government and private entities to guide technology development.
  • Eco Friendly Measures – means minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment.
CONCLUSION: The United Nations estimates that India’s population will reach 1.7 billion by 2050. In that case, the country is likely to face a widening ecological deficit even if its current per-capita levels of resource-consumption remain the same. Therefore, for Indian society to continue to prosper in an increasingly resource-constrained world, business and government leaders must work actively to protect the natural capital on which India’s economy, and all human life, depends. Rapid environmental degradation that has been taking place all over the world in recent decades has alarmed economists and environmentalists alike. Fostering sustainable development requires the effective management of naturally human and physical capital. Improved coordination across the countries to share the global resources, technology and scarce resources is the need of the hour. Global level generosity in promoting and protecting democracy, exchange of technology, maintaining stability of prices in the various economies, judicious use of all environmental material throughout to enhance human development and sustainable development is vital. Sustainable development can be achieved only if the environment is conserved and improved.
REFERENCES:
Chopra Kanchan and Kadekodi G.K. (1999), 'Operationalising Sustainable Development: Economic-Ecological Modeling for Developing Countries' Concept Publishers, New Delhi.
Govt. of India, 'Economic Survey -1998-99.
Jayanta Bandyopadhyay and Bidisha Malik (2003), ‘Ecology and Economics in Sustainable Water Resource Development in India’, Concept Publishers, New Delhi.
Krishnamurthy, H.R. (2005), ‘Economic Development of India’, Sapna Publishers, Bangalore.
Misra, S.K. and Puri, V.K. (2005), ‘Indian Economy’, Himalaya Publishing House, New Delhi.
Prakash, H. et al (2005), ‘Environment and Sustainable Development’, Southern Economist, 43(21).
Sengupta Ramprasad (2001), ‘Ecology and Economics: An Approach to Sustainable Development’, Oxford University Press, India.
Sustainability: Wikipedia
The Hindu (English Daily), dated: 18-12-2009.
The Hindu (English Daily), dated:   6-02-2009 & 7-02-2009.
Viegas, Philip, Menon, Geetha (1989), ‘The Impact of Environmental Degradation on People’, Indian Social Institute, New Delhi.
UN Climate Change Conference (Paris) August, 2017
UN Environment: Our Planet, 2015.
‘Water Resources, Sustainable Livelihoods and Eco-System Services’, Edited by Kanchan Chopra, C. H. Hanumantha Rao, Ramprasad Sengupta, Published for Indian Society for Ecological Economics (INSEE) By Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, India.
https://www.weforum.org/.../3-challenges-facing-the-uns-sustainable-development-goals...





No comments:

Post a Comment